INDUS VALLEY CIVILIZATION (3300 BC TO 1700 BC)
The Indus Valley Civilization was also known as Bronze age civilization. The Bronze Age began in the Indian sub-continent around 3300 BC with the early age of Indus valley civilization. It was mainly confined to the Indus River and its tributaries which elongated to the Ghaggar-Halka Valley, The Ganga-Yamuna Daab and Southern eastern Afghanistan.
The Indus valley civilization period is divided into three parts:
a) 3300 BC -1300 BC
b) Mature period 2600-1300 BC
c) Pre-Harappan Cultures started 1700 BC
At present, the civilization is located in:-
a) India (Gujarat, Haryana, Punjab, Rajasthan Provinces)
b) Pakistan ( Sindh, Western Punjab, Balochistan)
It is one of the World’s earliest urbancivilizations, along with Ancient Egypt and Mesopotamia.
The mature Indus civilization was the beginning of urban civilization on the sub-continent. The civilization included urban centres such as Kalibangan, Ropar, Rakhigarhi and Lothal which are the part of Modern India.
During the late period of the civilization, it started declining gradually and by around 1700 BC, most of the cities were deserted. But, the Indus valley civilization did not disappear totally, some of its elements may have survived, especially in the villages and farms.
The Indus civilization had a writing system, which still remains a mystery, that’s why it is least known. The evidence says they were highly developed; many houses had wells and bathrooms as well as underground drainage system.
The Indus valley civilization is also known as Harappan civilization after Harappa. Excavation of Harappan sites has been ongoing since 1920.
There are three stages of Harappan Civilization which are Pre-Harappan, Harappan and Post-Harappan known as Rojde, Desalpur and Surkotada respectively.
Major Achievements and Facts at the time of Indus valley civilization are:
a) They achieved great accuracy in measuring length, mass, time. They had developed the measuring equipments and became the first civilization in the world to develop precise measurements and weighing equipment.
b) Harappans developed some new techniques in metallurgy and produced Copper, Bronze, Lead and Tin.
c) A Touchstone bearing Gold streaks, which is probably used for testing Gold purity.
d) Clay was utilized for both Art and tool manufacturing
e) Large irrigation system.
f) Other trades techniques like boats and carts were develop for trade.
g) Mohenjo-daro is the largest site and Allahdino is the smallest site.
h) The Indus valley civilization had a total population of over 5 million. Most of the people’swere artisans and traders.
i) Most of the houses were two-storeyed and very spacious.
j) Bricks used in construction were built in the ration of 4:2:1 having 11 inches length.
k) Wheels used in Harappa were without axle.